Combining collective and artificial intelligence for global health diseases diagnosis using crowdsourced annotated medical images

Lin, L., Bermejo-Peláez, D., Capellán-Martín, D., Cuadrado, D., Rodríguez, C., García, L., Díez, N., Tomé, R., Postigo, M., Ledesma-Carbayo, M.J., Luengo-Oroz, M. "Combining collective and artificial intelligence for global health diseases diagnosis using crowdsourced annotated medical images". Proc 43th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference (EMBC 2021), pp. 3344-3348. Virtual conference, Nov. 2021. (doi: 10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630868)
ABSTRACT

Visual inspection of microscopic samples is still the gold standard diagnostic methodology for many global health diseases. Soil-transmitted helminth infection affects 1.5 billion people worldwide, and is the most prevalent disease among the Neglected Tropical Diseases. It is diagnosed by manual examination of stool samples by microscopy, which is a time-consuming task and requires trained personnel and high
specialization. Artificial intelligence could automate this task making the diagnosis more accessible. Still, it needs a large amount of annotated training data coming from experts.

In this work, we proposed the use of crowdsourced annotated medical images to train AI models (neural networks) for the detection of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in microscopy images from stool samples leveraging non-expert knowledge collected through playing a video game. We collected annotations made by both school-age children and adults, and we showed that, although the quality of crowdsourced annotations made by school-age children are sightly inferior than the ones made by adults, AI models trained on these crowdsourced annotations perform similarly (AUC of 0.928 and 0.939 respectively), and reach similar performance to the AI model trained on expert
annotations (AUC of 0.932). We also showed the impact of the training sample size and continuous training on the performance of the AI models.

In conclusion, the workflow proposed in this work combined collective and artificial intelligence for detecting soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Embedded within a digital health platform can be applied to any other medical image analysis task and contribute
to reduce the burden of disease.